The European Space Agency’s JUICE mission to Jupiter moved a step closer recently with the signing of an important contract between ESA and Airbus. JUICE stands for JUpiter ICy moon Explorer, and is an ESA mission to send a probe to explore Jupiter and her moons, with a launch date of 2022 and an arrival at Jupiter in 2029. The contract signed with Airbus will see them lead the development and construction of this satellite. There will also be some involvement from NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA.
Upon arrival at Jupiter, JUICE will manoeuvre to achieve close passes of its moons Callisto and Europa, before settling into orbit about its largest moon Ganymede. Ganymede, together with Europa and possibly Callisto, is believed to have a liquid ocean beneath an icy crust.
The main focus of the JUICE mission will be to see how habitable Ganymede is for microbial life. With liquid water, and heating from the tides caused by Jupiter’s tides, Ganymede, Europa and Callisto are believed to be amongst the most likely places in our solar system for life to have developed. Longer term plans are to build a probe which will be able to burrow through the icy crust of one of these moons and actually look directly for life in their oceans.