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## Two nearby planets potentially habitable?

This story caught my attention in the last few weeks. It is from the Universe Today website, and here is the link to the story. The two exoplanets in the story, TRAPPIST-1b and TRAPPIST-1c, are only 40 light-years away, which by cosmic standards is very close. They have been studied in near-infrared light using the Hubble Space Telescope’s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), which was put onto Hubble during a last servicing mission in May 2009.

This story appeared recently on the Universe Today website.

By studying the planets in near-infrared light we can look at how sunlight is absorbed by different gases in a planet’s atmosphere. This method was pioneered by Gerard Kuiper working in the 1940s. This article mentions that the atmospheres of these two exoplanets have been shown to be “compact” like the Earth and Venus, rather than “puffy” like the gas giants Jupiter and Saturn.

How can we determine this from near-infrared studies done here? Rather than looking at reflected light from the parent star, instead these studies used the passing of the two planets in front of a background star (not the host star). By looking at the absorption lines produced by the two planets’ atmospheres, not only can the gases in them be determined, but by looking at the details of the absorption lines one can determine the temperature and pressure of the gas. This is an example of how powerful a technique spectroscopy is in determining the physical nature of gases.

To find two planets so nearby which could potentially harbour life is quite exciting. I am surprised this has not been a bigger story in the press.

## What is the scale height of water vapour in the Earth’s atmosphere?

Someone recently asked me what was the scale height of water vapour in the Earth’s atmosphere, so I decided to see if I could find out. The scale height of water vapour is particularly important for infrared, sub-millimetre, millimetre and microwave astronomy, as it is the water vapour in the Earth’s atmosphere which prevents large fractions of these parts of the electromagnetic spectrum from reaching the ground. This is why we can, for example, only study the Cosmic Microwave Background from space or from a few particularly dry places on Earth such as Antarctica and the Atacama desert in Chile.

## What does the term ‘scale height’ mean?

First of all, let me explain what the term “scale height” means. It is the altitude by which one needs to go up for the quantity of something (water, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide) to go down by a factor of $1/e$, where $e$ is the base of natural logarithms, and $e=2.71828.....$. The scale height, usually written as $H$, is dependent upon the temperature of the gas, the mass of the molecules, and the gravity of the planet. We can write that

$H = \frac{ kT }{ Mg } \text{ (1)}$

where $k$ is Boltzmann’s constant, $T$ is the temperature (in Kelvin), $M$ is the  mass of the molecule and $g$ is the value of the acceleration due to gravity. If we were to plot the atmospheric pressure as a function of altitude we find that it follows an exponential, this is because of the differential equation which produces Equation (1) above (I will go into the mathematics of how Equation (1) is derived in a separate blog).

In the case of air, which is some 80% nitrogen molecules and 20% oxygen molecules, the scale height has been well determined and is $7.64 \text{ kilometres}$ (or, to put it another way, it drops by a half every $5.6 \text{ km}$). So, if one were at an altitude of $5.6 \text{ km}$, half of the atmosphere would be below you. Go up another $5.6 \text{ km}$ and it drops by a half again, so at $11.2 \text{ km}$ 75% of the atmosphere is below you.

## What is the scale height of water vapour in the Earth’s atmosphere?

Determining the scale height of water vapour in the Earth’s atmosphere is, I have discovered, essentially impossible. Or, to put it better, it is a meaningless figure. This is because it varies too much. It depends on temperature, so even in a given place it can vary quite a bit. So, instead, we talk of precipitable water vapour (PWV) at a particular place (both location and altitude). PWV is the equivalent height of a column of water if we were to take all the water vapour in the atmosphere above a particular location and it were to precipitate as rain.

The Mount Abu Infrared Observatory in India, for example, is at an altitude of 1,680 metres, and quotes a PWV of 1-2mm in winter. The PWV would be higher in summer, as water sinks in the atmosphere when it is cold. For Kitt Peak in Arizona, which is at an altitude of 2,090 metres, the PWV varies between about 15mm and 25mm. This is why very little infrared astronomy is done at Kitt Peak. For Mauna Kea in Hawaii, which is at an altitude of just over 4,000 metres, it varies between 0.5mm and 2mm. This is why there are a number of infrared, sub-mm and millimetre wave telescopes there.

At the South Pole, which is at an altitude of 2,835 metres, the PWV is measured to be between 0.25 and 0.4 in the middle of the Austral winter (June/July/August). Why is this so much lower than Mauna Kea, even though it it is at a lower altitude? It is because it is so much colder.

The average Precipitable Water Vapour at the South Pole averaged over a 50-year period from 1961 to 2010. Even in the Austral summer it is low, but in the Austral winter (June/July/August) it drops to as low as 0.25 to 0.35mm, one of the lowest values found anywhere on Earth.

High in the Atacama desert, on the Llano de Chajnantor (the Chajnantor plateau), which is at an altitude of 5,000 metres and where ALMA and other millimetre and microwave telescopes are being located, the PWV is typically about 1mm, and drops to as low as 0.25mm some 25% of the time (see e.g. this website). This is why Antarctica and the Atacama desert (in particular the Chajnantor plateau) have become places to study the Cosmic Microwave Background from the Earth’s surface; we need exceptionally dry air for the microwaves to reach the ground.

## Summary

To summarise, it is meaningless to talk about a scale height for water vapour in the Earth’s atmosphere, as the vertical distribution of water vapour not only varies from location to location, but varies at a given location. So, instead, we talk about Precipitable Water Vapour (PWV); the lower this number the drier the air is above our location. To be able to do infrared, sub-millimetre, millimetre and microwave astronomy we need the PWV to be as low as possible, the best sites (Antarctica and the Atacama) get as low as 0.25mm and are usually below 1mm. The exceptionally dry air above Antarctica and the Atacama desert enable us to study the Cosmic Microwave Background from the ground, something we usually have to do from space.